What is intermediate coronary syndrome?

MalaCards based summary : Intermediate Coronary Syndrome, also known as unstable angina, is related to coronary heart disease 1 and coronary thrombosis, and has symptoms including angina pectoris An important gene associated with Intermediate Coronary Syndrome is PF4 (Platelet Factor 4), and among its related pathways/ …

What is intermediate coronary artery disease?

An intermediate coronary lesion on angiography is defined as a luminal narrowing with a diameter stenosis ≥40% but ≤70%. Assessment of a coronary lesion with intermediate severity continues to be a challenge for cardiologists.

What are the 3 types of acute coronary syndrome?

The term acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is applied to patients in whom there is a suspicion or confirmation of acute myocardial ischemia or infarction. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-elevation MI (STEMI), and unstable angina are the three traditional types of ACS.

What is the meaning of coronary syndrome?

Overview. Acute coronary syndrome is a term used to describe a range of conditions associated with sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart. One such condition is a heart attack (myocardial infarction) — when cell death results in damaged or destroyed heart tissue.

Can acute coronary syndrome be cured?

Immediate treatment is ordered for acute coronary syndrome. The short-term goals include relieving pain and improving blood flow to help restore heart function as quickly as possible. Long-term goals include improving overall heart function, managing risk factors, and lowering the risk of a heart attack.

What is intermediate artery?

In some patients, there is a third artery that branches off the left main called the intermediate artery. This vessel usually supplies the left margin of the heart [3, 4].

What is the most common cause of ACS?

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is caused primarily by atherosclerosis. Most cases of ACS occur from disruption of a previously nonsevere lesion (an atherosclerotic lesion that was previously hemodynamically insignificant yet vulnerable to rupture).

What is the difference between angina and acute coronary syndrome?

The distinguishing feature between unstable angina and non-STEMI is the presence of elevated cardiac markers, such as troponin, which implies myocardial damage. Patient history alone is insufficient to make a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

What is the difference between coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome?

Introduction and definitions

On the other hand, CAD is characterized by atherosclerosis in coronary arteries and can be asymptomatic, whereas ACS almost always presents with a symptom, such as unstable angina, and is frequently associated with myocardial infarction (MI) regardless of the presence of CAD (2).

Is angina and acute coronary syndrome?

Unstable angina is an acute coronary syndrome and should be treated as a medical emergency.

What are the early signs of heart blockage?

Signs and symptoms can include: Chest pain, chest tightness, chest pressure and chest discomfort (angina) Shortness of breath. Pain, numbness, weakness or coldness in your legs or arms if the blood vessels in those parts of your body are narrowed.

Who is at risk for coronary artery disease?

The traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease are high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, family history, diabetes, smoking, being post-menopausal for women and being older than 45 for men, according to Fisher. Obesity may also be a risk factor.

Can a blocked artery be treated with medication?

In serious cases, medical procedures or surgery can help to remove blockages from within the arteries. A doctor may also prescribe medication, such as aspirin, or cholesterol-reducing drugs, such as statins.

What foods to avoid if you have angina?

Avoid foods that contain saturated fat and partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats. These are unhealthy fats that are often found in fried foods, processed foods, and baked goods. Eat fewer foods that contain cheese, cream, or eggs.

What will happen if acute coronary syndrome is not treated?

This can cause unstable angina or a heart attack. Unstable angina happens when blood flow to the heart is suddenly slowed by narrowed coronary arteries. Or small blood clots can form in these arteries and slow blood flow. There may be no damage to the heart muscle.

What body systems are affected by acute coronary syndrome?

Acute coronary syndrome is a term for a group of conditions that suddenly stop or severely reduce blood from flowing to the heart muscle. When blood cannot flow to the heart muscle, the heart muscle can become damaged. Heart attack and unstable angina are both acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Which artery is the widow maker?

A widowmaker is an informal term for a heart attack that involves 100 percent blockage in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, says Stanley Chetcuti, M.D., an interventional cardiologist at the University of Michigan Frankel Cardiovascular Center.

Which coronary artery is most important?

The heart’s three coronary arteries are not all equal. The most important artery is called the left anterior descending artery (LAD). It feeds blood to the whole front wall of the heart, which represents much more muscle than the area fed by either of the other two coronary arteries.

Which coronary artery is most commonly blocked?

The LAD artery is the most commonly occluded of the coronary arteries. It provides the major blood supply to the interventricular septum, and thus bundle branches of the conducting system.

Can stress cause coronary thrombosis?

For this reason, the alterations of serotonin levels induced by stress could be crucial for their influence on platelet activation thus increasing the risk of coronary thrombosis [56].

How long does acute coronary syndrome last?

It may be similar to a bout of normal (stable) angina. However, it is usually more severe and lasts longer. ACS pain usually lasts more than 15 minutes.

How do you manage ACS?


  1. Thrombolytics (clot busters) help dissolve a blood clot that’s blocking an artery.
  2. Nitroglycerin improves blood flow by temporarily widening blood vessels.
  3. Antiplatelet drugs help prevent blood clots from forming and include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), prasugrel (Effient) and others.

Is acute coronary syndrome a diagnosis?

The term “acute coronary syndrome” encompasses a range of thrombotic coronary artery diseases, including unstable angina and both ST-segment elevation and non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Diagnosis requires an electrocardiogram and a careful review for signs and symptoms of cardiac ischemia.

How can you tell the difference between myocardial infarction and unstable angina?

The classification consists of unstable angina and two types of heart attack.

  1. Unstable angina is a change in the pattern of angina symptoms. …
  2. Non-ST-segment elevation MI is a heart attack that doctors can identify by blood tests but that does not produce typical changes (ST-segment elevation) on an ECG.

Can you live a long life with coronary artery disease?

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is treatable, but there is no cure. This means that once diagnosed with CAD, you have to learn to live with it for the rest of your life. By lowering your risk factors and losing your fears, you can live a full life despite CAD.

What are the 3 cardiac enzymes?

Cardiac enzymes ― also known as cardiac biomarkers ― include myoglobin, troponin and creatine kinase.

What vitamin removes plaque from arteries?

Niacin, or Vitamin B3, is the best agent known to raise blood levels of HDL, which helps remove cholesterol deposits from the artery walls.

Can an ECG detect a blocked artery?

Can an electrocardiogram detect blocked arteries? No, an electrocardiogram cannot detect blocked arteries. Blocked arteries are usually diagnosed with a nuclear stress test, cardiac pet scan, coronary CT angiogram or traditional coronary angiogram.

Does echocardiogram show blockage?

Your doctor might recommend a stress echocardiogram to check for coronary artery problems. However, an echocardiogram can’t provide information about any blockages in the heart’s arteries.

What foods should you avoid with coronary heart disease?

What foods should you avoid with coronary heart disease?

  • butter.
  • gravy.
  • non-dairy creamers.
  • fried foods.
  • processed meats.
  • pastries.
  • certain cuts of meat.
  • junk foods, like potato chips, cookies, pies, and ice cream.

What foods cause plaque in arteries?

Saturated fat is a main dietary culprit in the buildup of plaque in the arteries.

Saturated Fat

  • Whole milk and cream.
  • Butter.
  • High-fat cheese.
  • High-fat cuts of meat, such as those that look “marbled” with fat.
  • Processed meats, including sausage, hot dogs, salami and bologna.
  • Ice cream.

Do you have high blood pressure with blocked arteries?

Blood pressure rises when the arteries are blocked and the blood can no longer flow freely. This is particularly pronounced during strenuous situations, as the heart must work even harder to supply the body with enough oxygen and nutrients.

Does aspirin reduce plaque in arteries?

“Our findings show that aspirin not only decreases inflammation in the arteries and the growth of the atherosclerotic plaque, but it also beneficially alters the consistency of the plaque that remains.”

Can you stent a 100% blocked artery?

“Patients typically develop symptoms when an artery becomes narrowed by a blockage of 70 percent or more,” says Menees. “Most times, these can be treated relatively easily with stents. However, with a CTO, the artery is 100 percent blocked and so placing a stent can be quite challenging.”

Are stents better than medication?

NIH-funded studies show stents and surgery no better than medication, lifestyle changes at reducing cardiac events. Researchers find stents, surgery provide higher quality of life for those with chest pain.

What 3 foods cardiologists say to avoid?

Here are eight of the items on their lists:

  • Bacon, sausage and other processed meats. Hayes, who has a family history of coronary disease, is a vegetarian. …
  • Potato chips and other processed, packaged snacks. …
  • Dessert. …
  • Too much protein. …
  • Fast food. …
  • Energy drinks. …
  • Added salt. …
  • Coconut oil.

Is banana good for angina?

High in potassium, foods like bananas can stop fatal blockages from occurring and inhibit the hardening and narrowing of arteries. Researchers at the University of Alabama discovered the effects after analysing mice who were at risk of heart disease.

Which fruit is best for heart?

Berries are chock full of heart-healthy phytonutrients and soluble fiber. Try blueberries, strawberries, blackberries or raspberries in cereal or yogurt. Seeds. Flaxseeds contain omega-3 fatty acids, fiber and phytoestogens to boost heart health.

How does acute coronary syndrome affect heart rhythm?

If the blockage affects a large amount of heart muscle, the heart will not pump effectively. If the blockage shuts off blood flow to the electrical system of the heart, the heart rhythm may be affected.