Where is the masticator space?

The masticator spaces are paired supra-hyoid cervical spaces on each side of the face that extend from the angle of the mandible to the parietal calvarium [1]. Each space is delineated by a superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia (SLDCF).

What is the Masticator space?

Masticator space. The masticator space is situated laterally to the medial pterygoid fascia and medially to the masseter muscle. It is bounded by the sphenoid bone, the posterior aspect of the mandible, and the zygomatic arch. It lies inferiorly to the temporal space and is anterolateral to the parapharyngeal space.

What is Masticator space infection?

The masticator space is defined as the separate fascial compartment containing the pterygoid, masseter and temporalis muscles and the mandible1,2). Masticator space abscess represents an advanced stage of a commonly odontogenic infection indicated by buccal pain, swelling and trismus3).

Which muscles are responsible for chewing?

Muscles of mastication

  • Masseter.
  • Temporalis.
  • Lateral pterygoid.
  • Medial pterygoid.

What are Pterygoids?

Pterygoid muscles. The pterygoid muscles are two of the four muscles of mastication, located in the infratemporal fossa of the skull. These muscles are: lateral pterygoid and medial pterygoid. The primary function of the pterygoid muscles is to produce movements of the mandible at the temporomandibular joint.

Where is the lateral pharyngeal space?

The parapharyngeal space (or lateral pharyngeal or pharyngomaxillary space) is in the upper neck above the hyoid bone. It is an inverted cone-shaped potential space that extends from the hyoid bone to the base of the skull.

Where is parapharyngeal space?

The parapharyngeal space is in the deep tissues of the neck and contains mostly fat, as well as blood vessels (including the carotid artery and jugular vein), nerves, lymph nodes, and parts of the salivary gland.

How do you drain a Masticator space abscess?

The abscess is drained via a horizontal incision 2.0 to 2.5 cm below the lower border of the mandible. A subplatysmal flap is raised and the masseter muscle is breached to expose the abscess through the pterygomasseteric sling13. Drainage will be performed under local or general anesthesia.

What is submandibular space?

The submandibular space extends from the hyoid bone to the mucosa of the floor of the mouth, and is bound anteriorly and laterally by the mandible and inferiorly by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia.

What is buccal space infection?

Buccal space infections – These arise primarily from mandibular or maxillary bicuspid or molar teeth, the apices of which lie outside of the buccinator muscle attachments. They are readily diagnosed because of marked cheek swelling but with minimal trismus or systemic symptoms (see Figure 4).

What muscle wrinkles forehead?

Frontalis muscle action produces horizontal forehead lines.

What muscle is responsible for smiling?

Table 1

Facial expression Muscle pair Half-widths (ms)
Smile Orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major 4.50 ± 0.53
Sad expression Corrugator and depressor anguli oris 8.00 ± 1.05
Horror expression Frontalis and mentalis 19.00
Contrived expression 1 Frontalis and zygomaticus major

Which is your kissing muscle you contract it to pucker your lips?

A ring of muscle encircling your mouth and anchored in your lips, the orbicularis oris (aka the “kissing muscle”) allows you to pucker and close your lips. The orbicularis oris also helps you to release air from the mouth forcibly.

What Innervates medial pterygoid?

Medial pterygoid muscle is innervated by the medial pterygoid branches of mandibular nerve (CN V3), one of the three divisions of trigeminal nerve (CN V).

What muscle closes the jaw?

The masseter muscle is one of the four muscles responsible for the action of mastication (chewing). When the masseter contracts it causes powerful elevation of the mandible causing the mouth to close.

Where is the Pterygoid plate located?

Two pairs of bony plates, the pterygoid processes, arise from the base of each alisphenoid bone. The outer plates are nearly horizontal in position. They extend from the posterior end of the maxillary bone caudad and laterad to the lateral surface of the tympanic bulla.

Where is pharyngeal?

Anatomy of the pharynx (throat). The pharynx is a hollow tube that starts behind the nose, goes down the neck, and ends at the top of the trachea and esophagus. The three parts of the pharynx are the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx.

What divides the parapharyngeal space?

Divisions. The parapharyngeal space is divided into 2 parts by the fascial condensation called the aponeurosis of Zuckerkandl and Testut (stylopharyngeal fascia – see diagram), joining the styloid process to the tensor veli palatini.

Which are components of bilateral parapharyngeal space?

The parapharyngeal space can be subdivided into compartments by a line extending from the medial aspect of the medial pterygoid plate to the styloid process. The internal maxillary artery, inferior alveolar nerve, lingual nerve, and auriculotemporal nerve comprise the anterior (ie, prestyloid) compartment.

What is parapharyngeal tissue?

The parapharyngeal space (PPS) is a potential space lateral to the upper pharynx. The PPS is shaped like an inverted pyramid, extending from the skull base superiorly to the greater cornu of the hyoid bone inferiorly.

What is parapharyngeal fat?

A distinctive fat tissue called the parapharyngeal fat pad exists in the upper lateral pharyngeal airway. Several studies have reported that collapsibility of the upper airway is related to localized fat tissue in the lateral pharyngeal wall (2–4).

What is parapharyngeal mass?

Parapharyngeal space tumors are typically asymptomatic and patients become aware of them only when a bulge develops in the palate or sidewall of the throat near the tonsils. The vast majority of these tumors are benign.

How do you drain a deep temporal space infection?

[1] Temporal space infection presents as a swelling in the temporal region superior to the zygomatic arch and posterior to the lateral orbital rim [2, 3]. Usually, infections of the temporal space are drained via temporal approach within the hairline making a 45 degree angle to the zygomatic arch.

What causes a parapharyngeal abscess?

Parapharyngeal abscesses are incorporated into a group of infections known as deep neck infections. 1, 2 These infections generally occur due to nontraumatic reasons in young children, such as a prior throat infection or an infection of dental origin that has seeded into the deeper tissue structures and lymph nodes.

How do you drain a parapharyngeal abscess?

Treatment of Parapharyngeal Abscess

Posterior abscesses are drained externally through the submaxillary fossa. Anterior abscesses can often be drained through an intra-oral incision, although larger abscesses extending beyond the parapharyngeal space may also require an external surgical approach.

Where is the submandibular?

About the size of a walnut, the submandibular glands are located below the jaw. The saliva produced in these glands is secreted into the mouth from under the tongue. Like the parotid glands, the submandibular glands have two parts called the superficial lobe and the deep lobe.

What causes submandibular space infection?

A submandibular space infection is a bacterial infection of the floor of the mouth. Bacteria can spread from an infected lower tooth to the tissue under and around the tongue. People with poor dental hygiene and people who have had a tooth pulled or a jaw fracture are at higher risk.

How do you treat submandibular space infection?

(Ludwig Angina)

Submandibular space infection is acute cellulitis of the soft tissues below the mouth. Symptoms include pain, dysphagia, and potentially fatal airway obstruction. Diagnosis usually is clinical. Treatment includes airway management, surgical drainage, and IV antibiotics.

How do you get a buccal space infection?


  1. Odontogenic infections of the 2nd or 3rd maxillary molars are the most common source for buccal space abscesses.
  2. Infection can spread from the buccal space to the cavernous sinus via the transverse facial vein.

How do you drain buccal space?

It is usually treated by surgical incision and drainage, and the incision is located inside the mouth to avoid a scar on the face. The incision are placed below the parotid papilla to avoid damage to the duct, and forceps are used to divide buccinator and insert a surgical drain into the buccal space.

Where is the buccal cavity located?

mouth, also called oral cavity or buccal cavity, in human anatomy, orifice through which food and air enter the body. The mouth opens to the outside at the lips and empties into the throat at the rear, its boundaries are defined by the lips, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and glottis.

What is occipital belly?

The occipitalis muscle (occipital belly) is a muscle which covers parts of the skull. Some sources consider the occipital muscle to be a distinct muscle. However, Terminologia Anatomica currently classifies it as part of the occipitofrontalis muscle along with the frontalis muscle.

Why do I always lift my eyebrows?

Some people naturally tend to be more expressive, and raise their eyebrows many times throughout the day, when we are young our skin will bounce back when we stop raising our eyebrows, however as we get older the skin tends to form a more permanent line on the forehead.

What is the side of your forehead called?

It is located on the side of the head behind the eye between the forehead and the ear.

Temple (anatomy)

Human skull. Temporal bone is orange, and the temple overlies the temporal bone as well as overlying the sphenoid bone.
Artery superficial temporal artery
Vein superficial temporal vein

How many muscles do you use to cry?

Crying: 17

You can thank the 12 muscles that screwed your face into a frown and the six intrinsic laryngeal muscles that caused your vocal chords to cough up that whimpering wail. Oh, and that lump in your throat, that was caused by the glottis muscle.

What is the strongest chewing muscle?

The masseter muscle is the main muscle used for chewing. It is the strongest muscle in the entire body, with the ability to close your jaws with anywhere from 55 to 200 lbs. of pressure. The temporalis muscle originates above your temple and connects to the jaw.

How many muscles does it take to frown?

A similarly minimal frown requires only six muscles to lower the corners of the mouth. According to plastic surgeon Dr. David H.

Muscles of facial expression.

Frowning Smiling
Platysma (2 muscles) Zygomaticus major (2 muscles)
Orbicularis oculi (2 muscles) Orbicularis oculi (2 muscles)

Do noses collide when kissing?

No matter who you’re kissing or why, the basic kiss relies heavily on one muscle – the orbicularis oris, which runs around the outside of your mouth. … So muscles in your head, neck and shoulders tilt your head so your nose doesn’t collide with your partner’s nose.

What is zygomaticus major?

Of all the muscles in the face, the zygomaticus major is perhaps the most noticeable. Sitting between the corners of our lips and the upper part of our cheeks, it controls the way in which we smile. The muscle sits atop the zygomatic bone, otherwise known as the cheekbone.

What are inside lips?

The interior surface of the lips is lined with a moist mucous membrane. In newborn infants the inner surface is much thicker, with sebaceous glands and minute projections called papillae. These structural adaptations seem to aid the process of sucking.

Where does the medial pterygoid attach?

The medial pterygoid muscle attaches to the angle of the mandible and to the lateral pterygoid plate to form a sling with the masseter muscle that suspends the mandible (Figure 6-19). The primary action is to elevate the mandible and laterally deviate it to the opposite side.

What is the alveolar nerve?

The inferior alveolar nerve is a mandibular nerve branch. The inferior alveolar nerve is responsible for sensory innervation to the gingivae on the lower jaw. The inferior alveolar nerve also branches into the mylohyoid nerve and the mental nerve.

How do you test for medial pterygoid?

To palpate from outside the mouth, the head is tilted slightly to access the muscle. Palpation with one finger locates trigger points on the inner surface of the mandible by pressing upward at its angle. Palpation of the mid-belly is performed inside the mouth with the pad of the palpating index finger.