faecalis has been associated with endocarditis, bacteremia, meningitis, endophthalmitis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, otitis media, peritonitis, and pneumonia [1, 2, 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28].
What does Alcaligenes cause?
Achromobacter and Alcaligenes Species. Achromobacter and Alcaligenes spp. are opportunistic human pathogens causing sporadic cases of pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, and urinary tract and other infections.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis harmful?
Introduction: Alcaligenes faecalis is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria commonly found in the environment. A. faecalis-associated nosocomial infections are common in hospitalized patients, but serious life threatening infections are rare.
How is Alcaligenes faecalis transmitted?
Alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found in the environment. This pathogen is usually transmitted in the form of droplets through ventilation equipment and nebulizers, but transmission through direct contact has also been documented in few case reports.
What are the virulence factors of Alcaligenes faecalis?
The virulence has been attributed to various factors including histamine sensitizing factor, adherence and cytotoxicity, and exocellular ‘o’ antigen. Although most of the studies conducted were based on susceptibility of avian and mammalian cells to the above factors, the same can hold true for humans.
Can Alcaligenes faecalis cause UTI?
A. faecalis has been associated with endocarditis, bacteremia, meningitis, endophthalmitis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, otitis media, peritonitis, and pneumonia [1, 2, 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28].
Is Alcaligenes faecalis pathogenic?
It is commonly found in soil, water, and in hospital settings, such as in respirators, hemodialysis systems, and intravenous solutions [1, 2]. It is a potentially emerging pathogen and usually causes opportunistic infections in humans.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis alkaline tolerant?
Alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative rod with flagella belonging to the family of Alcaligenaceae. It is a nonfermentative aerobic, nonencapsulated, oxidase-positive bacterium and named for its ability to produce an alkaline reaction in certain medium .
What is Alcaligenes faecalis resistant to?
Alcaligenes faecalis is generally resistant to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol and tetracyclines and usually susceptible to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam antibiotics such as ureidopenicillins, ticarcillin–clavulanic acid, cephalosporins and carbapenems.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis Bacillus?
Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with flagella, and belong to the family of Alcaligenaceae.
Where is Alcaligenes found?
Strains of Alcaligenes (such as A. faecalis) are found mostly in the intestinal tracts of vertebrates, decaying materials, dairy products, water, and soil, they can be isolated from human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and wounds in hospitalized patients with compromised immune systems.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis normal flora?
Alcaligenes faecalis is a gram-negative organism that is commonly found in the environment and may also be a part of normal fecal flora in humans.
Where is Pseudomonas Alcaligenes found?
Alcaligenes are found in soil and water and are common inhabitants of the intestinal tracts of some animals.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis Halophile?
Alcaligenes=NOT a halophile.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis motile?
Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod. It is commonly found in a watery environment and is rarely isolated from humans.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis Enterobacteriaceae?
There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) present mainly in Enterobacteriaceae and other nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria, such as Alcaligenes faecalis, which is the only species in that genus that is clinically relevant.
Is Alcaligenes faecalis the same as Enterococcus faecalis?
While opportunistic infections do occur, the bacterium is generally considered nonpathogenic. When an opportunistic infection does occur, it is usually observed in the form of a urinary tract infection. A.
What disease is caused by Proteus vulgaris?
P. vulgaris, previously considered biogroup 2, has been reported to cause UTIs, wound infections, burn infections, bloodstream infections, and respiratory tract infections (71, 137).
What does Alcaligenes faecalis smell like?
faecalis produces a distinctive sweet odor resembling that of green apples.
Does Alcaligenes faecalis produce acid?
The tube inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis , produces acid but no gas. It would be read as A/-. The Alcaligenes faecalis degrades peptone and creates an alkaline by-product.
What pH does Alcaligenes faecalis grow at?
It is also pH-dependent in vitro with an optimum between 5.8 and 7.
What is the genus of Alcaligenes faecalis?
It is also pH-dependent in vitro with an optimum between 5.8 and 7.
Does Alcaligenes faecalis reduce nitrate?
Our studies revealed that A. faecalis could reduce nitrate and nitrite under aerobic conditions with electrodes as the electron donor, and the current densities were low (<,0.02 mA/cm2).
What is the colony morphology of Alcaligenes faecalis?
Colonies are whitish with a feathery, thin flared irregular edges. colonies appear non-pigmented and similar in size to Acinetobacter.
Is achromobacter an Enterobacteriaceae?
Achromobacter is a genus of bacteria, included in the family Alcaligenaceae in the order Burkholderiales. The cells are Gram-negative straight rods and are motile by using one to 20 peritrichous flagella.
|Genus:||Achromobacter Yabuuchi and Yano 1981|
Does Alcaligenes faecalis grow on MacConkey Agar?
temperature is 20-37 ºC. Can grow on MacConkey agar and Simmons’ citrate agar. Isolated from soil, water, feces, urine, blood, sputum,wounds, pleural fluid, nematodes, and insects. Subsp.
Does a faecalis ferment lactose?
faecalis can grow in the presence of bile salts. … faecalis can be cultivated on purple agar and ferments lactose under acid production (see Fig. 124:3).
When was Alcaligenes faecalis discovered?
In 1974, an Alcaligenes strain was isolated from a nematode (20), until now, the nematicidal activity of this Alcaligenes strain had not been reported. In this study, A. faecalis ZD02 isolated from C. elegans cadavers was found to have nematicidal activity against C.
What does a faecalis ferment?
Streptococcus faecalis ferments gluconic acid with the production of 0·5 mole carbon dioxide, 1·5 moles lactic acid and the rest a mixture of small amounts of acetic acid, formic acid and ethyl alcohol, In the presence of arsenite, 1·75 moles of lactic acid were produced with negligible amounts of the minor products ( …
Is Alcaligenes faecalis obligate Aerobe?
Alcaligenes faecalis is a Gram-negative, obligate aerobe, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, and non-fermenting bacterium commonly found in soil, water, and hospital environments.
Is a faecalis an Aerotolerant Anaerobe?
faecalis, an anaerobic aerotolerant bacterium, is notable for its failure to produce the catalase enzyme. Enterococcus faecalis tolerates and grows under aerobic conditions.
Is Alcaligenes a lactose fermenter?
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Elizabethkingia spp., Chryseobacterium spp., Achromobacter spp., and Alcaligenes spp. are less-common non–lactose-fermenting bacteria that have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens.
Where is Proteus vulgaris found in the environment?
Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are commensals of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, but they also can be found in water and soil.
Is Bacillus subtilis Gram positive or negative?
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes.
Is Enterococcus faecalis Gram positive or negative?
Enterococci are Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci in short and medium chains commonly associated with nosocomial infections.
Is Proteus vulgaris Gram positive or negative?
Proteus vulgaris Proteus vulgaris is an facultative anaerobe, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It causes urinary tract and wound infections.
Which Pseudomonas species will have yellow colony pigmentation on blood agar?
Pseudomonas mendocina produces smooth, non-wrinkled and flat colonies producing a brownish yellow pigment.
What does Pseudomonas putida do?
Pseudomonas putida is capable of converting styrene oil into the biodegradable plastic PHA. This may be of use in the effective recycling of polystyrene foam, otherwise thought to be not biodegradable.
Is Pseudomonas aeruginosa indole positive?
Pseudomonas gives negative Voges Proskauer, indole and methyl red tests, but a positive catalase test. While some species show a negative reaction in the oxidase test, most species, including P.
Is flavobacterium motile?
The Flavobacterium species are Gram-negative rods, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic, motile by gliding, pigmented bacteria containing menaquinone-6 as the sole respiratory quinone.
Does Alcaligenes faecalis produce amylase?
Characterization of Alcaligenes faecalis GPA-1 producing thermostable extracellular α-amylase.
What is the Gram reaction of Staphylococcus aureus?
If the bacteria stays purple, they are Gram-positive. If the bacteria turns pink or red, they are Gram-negative. The two categories cause different types of infections: Gram-positive infections include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), strep infections, and toxic shock.
Is a faecalis urease positive?
Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis are commonly considered urease-negative bacteria.
Is Citrobacter Freundii Gram positive or negative?
rodentium (formerly Citrobacter freundii strain 4280), is a nonmotile, gram-negative rod that ferments lactose but does not utilize citrate or does so marginally (Barthold, 1980, Schauer et al., 1995).